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A Safavid Silk and Wool Rug




The inscriptions on this rug suggest that it may have been a diplomatic gift from the Safavid Persian court to that of the Ottoman Turks. Perhaps it was even given on the occasion of the Peace Treaty signed between the two empires in 1590. Were this the case, ‘Sultan Murad’ referred to in the  inscriptions would be the Ottoman Sultan Murad III (r. 1574-1595) and the rug would have been sent by the court of Shah Abbas I (r. 1587-1629.). The reference to Mirza Makhdum, would therefore probably refer to Mirza Makhdum Sharifi (1544/5-1587) who was a preacher in Qazvin. He fled to the Ottoman Empire from the hostility of a Qizilbash faction in c.1576 and was subsequently appointed the chief qadi of Mecca.

This unusual prayer rug appears to be an addition to the corpus of Safavid Persian niche rugs previously regarded as part of the ‘Salting’ or ‘Topkapi’ group of rugs. Named for a carpet bequeathed to the Victoria and Albert Museum by George Salting upon his death in 1909, the attribution and  dating of this group of rugs fell into question in the mid-20th century with some scholars suggesting they were copies of Safavid work manufactured in late 19th century Turkey.

Revered by early scholars such as A. U. Pope, F.R. Martin, F. Sarre, E. Kühnel, W. von Bode and G. Migeon they were considered superb examples of Safavid weaving. When these rugs appeared on the market they were purchased by renowned collectors such as Charles Yerkes, Dikran Kelekian, Albert Goupil, Stefano Bardini and E. Paravicini; with several of them now in institutions such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, the Carpet Museum in Tehran, and the Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore. In 1999 Michael Franses studied and documented the 89 then known niche rugs of Persian design that were considered part of the ‘Salting’ or ‘Topkapi’ group, see Eiland, M.L., Jr. and Robert Pinner, eds., Oriental Carpet and Textile Studies, vol. V, part 2: The Salting Carpets, ICOC, 1999, pp. 42-67. These rugs all feature a Persian design and, as in the example here, the majority (70) includes calligraphic inscriptions, with 41 examples having metal thread brocading, ibid, p. 53. Thirty-five of these prayer rugs remain in the collection of the Topkapi Palace Museum in Istanbul, with at least 20 now in Western museums and collections believed to have once also been in the Topkapi collection, ibid, p. 42. These rugs were most probably sold by the Topkapi palace during the throws of the Russo-Turkish war of 1877-78, see Mills, John, ibid, p. 10. The authors further present evidence that the ‘Salting’ or ‘Topkapi’ rugs are the product of Safavid Persia with the confirming support of C-14 dating results. Scholarship has since come around to accepting that these rugs were produced during the Safavid period with more recent discussions of the group being Jon Thompson, Milestones in the History of Carpets, Milan, 2006, pp. 220-223; “Auction Price Guide,” Hali, issue 144, p. 115 and Sheila R. Canby, Shah ‘Abbas; the Remaking of Iran, London, 2009, pp. 80-81.

The present rug shares it unusual asymmetric design with one of these rugs, that known as the “Dancing Dervishes Persian Niche Rug” now in the Mevlana Museum, Konya, see Eiland and Pinner, op.cit., no. 55, p. 101. Like the rug offered here, the “Dancing Dervishes rug” is believed to be woven with silk and metal threads, however, this information came from F.R. Martin’s The History of Oriental Carpets before 1800, Vienna, 1908 and the rug was not examined by the authors in 1999. Martin ascribed the Dancing Dervishes rug to Yezd, circa 1590, see Martin, ibid, fig. 147. Both of these rugs feature poetic inscriptions in their borders, with the Dancing Dervishes rug also bearing a Ka’aba symbol within the arch. According to the Mevlana Museum directory of 1930, this rug “was presented to the Tomb of Mevlana by an Ottoman sultan on his return from a journey to Iran,” Eiland and Pinner, op.cit.,, p. 101. In addition to sharing an asymmetric design of very elegant swirling vines, the present and Dancing Dervishes  rugs also employ an unusually shallow arch that is confined to the top quarter of the field. Many of the Safavid niche rugs have a more prominent  arch, which occupies almost half of the design.

Here, the metallic ground offers a superb neutral foil to the vividly colored and exquisitely drawn palmettes, vines and curling leaves of the design. This is a characteristic of the Safavid ‘Polonaise’ silk and metal thread rugs, although here the varied and fresh coloring is much more like that found on the silk foundation, wool pile carpets woven at Isphahan in the 16th and 17th centuries, for one example: the Rothschild/Cittone carpet, lot 221, Sotheby’s New York, September 20, 2001.

The border of this rug where calligraphic cartouches encircle the entire rug is found more often in larger Safavid carpets such as those illustrated as plates 1156 through 1162 in A.U. Pope, A Survey of Persian Art, Oxford, 1936-9, than in the prayer rugs, with only two similar examples, the d’Allemagne niche rug and one of the Topkapi Saray niche rugs, no. 33, see Eiland and Pinner, op.cit., nos. 76 and 77, pp. 108-109.

with Persian verses in nast’aliq reading:

“As long as there is trace of this earth and sky,
Let the Ottoman house be the supreme lords
On the throne of justice and good fortune
May it be perpetually joyful and successful
Let the name of Sultan Murad
Be the beautifying ornament of sermons and coinage

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